Chapter 17 Hindu Culture


  • Sean N. Bennett, RN, MSN - Assistant Professor - Utah Valley Hospital - Orem, Utah
  • Sandra Guillen, RN, - Utah
  • Taylor Nelson, SN - Utah Valley University - Orem, Utah
  • Sarah Olsen, RN - Utah
  • Charles Smart, SN - Utah Valley University - Orem, Utah
  • Ashley Waller, RN - Utah



  • .






Hinduism is more than a religion. Hinduism is a way of life for many people around the world. The Hindu philosophy comes from a wide range of beliefs from scriptures and many other varied religious literatures. The Hindu culture is one that revolves around love and respect for others. For example, respect for elders is a foundation of Hindu culture. This acknowledgement of seniority is shown by sitting to the left of elders, never sitting while they are standing, bringing gifts on special occasions, not challenging or arguing, and by serving their food first. Hindus also show respect in the way that they address each other. Someone who is younger never addresses an elder by his or her given name. Even a younger brother will not address an older brother by name, but instead as periannan (peh-ree-uh-NON), or annan (uh-NON, older brother). A Hindu wife will only refer to her husband as “my husband” or “him” and never by his given name.  In order to show respect to holy men and women, one will touch their feet in reverence of their humility (Subramuniyaswami, 2002).

Purity is another vitally important trait in Hindu culture. Hindus believe that one must reach purity of three forms; mind, speech, and body or sometimes referred to as thought, word, and deed. Hindus reach purity of the mind through meditation, good company, and clearing the subconscious. Never using harsh, aggravated, or crude language attains purity of speech. Keeping a clean and healthy physical body is needed to attain purity physically and one must also only consume pure foods. One must never touch food that one does not intend to buy and no one should offer something to someone of which they had taken a bite or sip from (Subramuniyaswami, 2002).

A common saying in Hindu culture is “Life should be lived joyously!” This ideology is exemplified in every aspect of Hindu culture. Hindus strive to keep a friendly expression on their face and share a kind word with everyone they meet. It is understood that every movement has a meaning and body language is very important in the Hindu culture. So much so that the degree of openness of ones eyes in a smile can determine ones interest and enthusiasm in a conversation and crossed arms while standing can indicate non-participation and disinterest (Subramuniyaswami, 2002). All of these aspects lead to a collection of refined gestures that are perceived in ones demeanor.

Value and Norms


The Hindu have many values and beliefs that make up their culture and help guide them through life. These values usually aren't explicitly written out, but are more subtle and are often shown through behavior and religious stories and practices. There are many variations to Hindu values with the following common threads, truth, dharma (DAR-muh), karma (KAR-muh) and the belief in a supreme being.

One of the main values of the Hindu culture is known as Dharma. Dharma means striving for righteousness and upholding moral laws. The Hindu believe it is important to make Dharma central to life and to live up to one's duties and abilities. Dharma is often taught through stories and scripture where there are difficulties in deciding what is right or wrong and how it is important to execute Dharma and respond to situations righteously (Values and Authorities, 2004). The value of Satyam (SUT-yum) states that Hindus believe they should speak the truth. If truth causes harm it is better not to say it. They also have a strong belief in the law of Karma, which is the law of cause and effect that states a person reaps what they sow. The way that a person conducts themselves in life, whether positively or negatively, will determine their destiny. They believe that no soul is eternally damned, but instead everyone has the ability to make choices that will determine the form in which they will be reincarnated. If a person does not live up to their Dharma and choose righteousness, they may be reincarnated to a state that is lower than what they are presently at (Nolan, n.d.).

Another important value of the Hindu is Moshka (MOHK-shah). Moshka is the liberation of an individual and the release of the soul from the cycle of life and death. Moshka is the ultimate goal for the Hindu and can only be achieved through complete realization and experience. A person must live all values, stay on the path of knowledge and Dharma and unconditionally surrender to God in order to obtain Moshka (Nolan, n.d.).

Traditions, Beliefs, and Attitudes




Traditions are an important part of every culture and religion; Hinduism is no exception. Hinduism is believed to be one of the oldest religions on earth with literally thousands of customs and traditions that vary from region to region and from caste to caste. We will list a few of the common traditions here (Hinduism Facts, n.d).

  1. Hindus typically greet one-another with the palms of both hands pressed together and saying 'Namaste' /ˈnäməˌstā/ or 'Namaskar' /ˌnäməsˈkär/
  2. Hindus do not wear footwear inside of homes, temples and other holy places. They also do not enter temples after consuming alcohol.
  3. Hindus will typically apply a spot or line of kumkum /ˈko͝omˌko͝om/ between the eyebrows at the time of worship.
  4. They do not eat non-vegetarian food on specific days of the week or during certain festivals.
  5. Marriage is an important ceremony for them and they do not hesitate to borrow money for the event.
  6. A married woman wears a Mangala (MON-guh-lah) sutra around her neck, bangles on her hand and toe rings, which indicates that she is married. She will also wear a Kumkum spot or a bindi between her eyebrows (Hinduism Facts, n.d).




Hinduism is vast and complex as compared to other religions, however, there are some major beliefs that are basic. The belief in the soul, or "aatma" (ah-tuh-muh), is wrapped around the idea that each living creature has a soul and is part of one Supreme Soul call "Parmatma." Before reaching the human body, the soul has already traveled through 84 million animal species. The place of the soul after death is determined by the Karma (CAR-muh) of our past life. This continues until becoming one with the Supreme Soul or Nirvana (Hinduism Facts, n.d.).

Hindus believe that their current life is a result of Karma from their past life. Good Karma or actions result in progression and bad Karma or sin results in suffering in this life and the next. Depending on an individual's Karma their soul may enter another human or an animal.

Along with several other major religions, Hindus believe in reincarnation. The soul continues to live on and inhabit other human bodies or animal species until it becomes one with the Supreme Soul. Hindus believe there are many routes or paths to reach God and not one specific set of steps (Hinduism Facts, n.d.).



Hindu attitudes can be summed up with the following mantra. This mantra is the national motto of India. It translates as:

Truth alone triumphs; not falsehood.

Through truth the divine path is spread out by which

The sages whose desires have been completely fulfilled,

Reach where that supreme treasure of Truth resides (Hinduism Facts, n.d).




The Hinduism religion is one of the oldest living religions to date; it can be traced back to 4,000 years ago and originated in India. It is now the 3rd largest religion with more than 1 billion followers. The Hindu religion is also known as Sanatan Dharma (SAN-uh-tan DAR-muh), which translates to Eternal Spiritual Path. The sacred text that Hinduism bases many of its beliefs from is called the Vedas (vei-duhs). The fundamental teaching found in the Vedas, also known as the Vedanta (VEI-dawn-ta), is a human’s basic nature isn’t confined to the body or mind; there is a spirit or spark of God in the soul. They see all things as a piece of God. For many Hindu, this is not just a just a theory, but it’s something that can be experienced through the practice of yoga. The four main types of yoga are Karma (car-ma), Bhakti (BAK-ti), Jnana (juh-naw-naw), and Raja (ra-ja). Each type of yoga is practiced for a different reason regarding your temperament (Hinduism: background, basic beliefs, and sacred texts, 2002).

The name for God in Hinduism is Brahman (bra-men). There are many manifestations of Brahman and therefore many Gods and Goddesses that can be worshipped. For example, a man can be known as a father, a brother, a husband, an uncle, a grandfather, a cousin, a friend, and so on. This is the same for God. If there is one manifestation of God that is preferred, then often times a Sect is created within Hinduism to worship that manifestation of Him. All sects follow the teachings of the Vedas/Vedanta regardless of which manifestation of God they choose. Many time Hindus worship God in the form of an idol, which is why nature and animals are sacred. The cow is the most sacred animal, which explains why vegetarianism is strongly encouraged in the religion (Hinduism Facts, n.d.).

The three main deities, or forms of god, in Hinduism are Lord Brahma (bra-ma) (the creator), Lord Vishnu (vish-nu) (the protector), and Lord Shiva (shee-va) (the destroyer). These along with Lord Ganesha (gih-nai-shaa), Lord Krishna (krihsh-naa), Lord Hanuman (huh-noo-mahn), Lord Rama (rAA-muh), and Goddess Parvati (paar-vuh-tee) are the most popular deities (Hinduism Facts, n.d.).

Reincarnation plays a big role in the Hindu religion and it is the effect of all the actions taken in this world. For example, a person born into a very privileged family and has a “good” life is reaping the benefits from their actions in a previous life. Rebirth will continue until the desires of the mind no longer exist and Maya (my-uh) is overcome (Hinduism: background, basic beliefs, and sacred texts, 2002).

Maya is the struggle of having great ideas and solutions to the world’s problems, but our actions not living up to that. It’s seeing the world full of injustice and misery. The way out of Maya is to see the world correctly, for God is in all things and through spiritual enlightenment and the practice of yoga a person may see that the world is God alone. This is what defines Moksha (mohk-shuh), also known as, spiritual freedom. When Moksha is achieved there are no desires and a deep satisfaction, thus no longer a purpose for rebirth (Hinduism: background, basic beliefs, and sacred texts, 2002).

Sense of Self-Space

Sense of Self


The Hindu belief of “self” centers around the idea that ultimately the universe and all it entails is merely an illusion and each individual is simply an impermanent being in a temporary state.  The physical self is finite, but the spirit Self is eternal. Even in writing, when self is written with a capital ‘S’, it is conveying that the subject is the Spirit, or the “Atman” (AHT-muhn) (The Self In Hinduism, 2012).

It is believed that the Atman does not belong to the individual, there is not an Atman or your Atman but there is only The Atman, which is the link to the One Reality that encompasses everyone and everything (The Self In Hinduism, 2012). However, it is not the belief that we, as human beings, possess a soul in our mortal bodies. In fact, Hindus believe that the Self possess a body versus it being the other way around. The Hindu scriptures, or Upanishads (UPA-ni-shads), teach that the Self does not do anything and it does not be anything, it just is (Atman, 2004).

Personal Space


In Hindu culture, the sense of personal space is identified as an important aspect. Generally, touching in public or displays of affection are seen as religiously disrespectful (Patient Care Guide, 2012). Even a casual greeting respects the personal space of the Hindu culture as people greet each other with hands pressed together and a bow, or “Namaste” (NUHM-uh-stay), which is preferred to shaking hands (The Self in Hinduism, 2012).

During times of conversation Hindus opt to stand about 3 to 3 ½ feet apart and it is proper to be at least an arm’s length away at any given time. In accordance with this sense of space, touching is usually not a means of communication. It can be seen how standing a conversational distance apart in the Hindu culture would not encourage touching between the two parties. However, this cultural preference of space does not extend to other situations such as on trains and buses where people are required to stand very close together (India, 2014).

Communication Style and Language


Sanskrit is the official sacred language in Hinduism. It is not very popular today, but it is still spoken in India and recognized as one of the official languages (Wikipedia, n.d.). In the 2001 census in India, 14,135 people said that Sanskrit is their native language. It is used in rituals, chants, and hymns in Hindu temples all over the world. Vedic (VEI-dik) Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas (vei-duhs), which is one of the sacred texts in Hinduism. Tamil (taa-mihl) is the second language of Hinduism. It is the language of the 12 Tirumurais (tee-roo-muh-RI) and the Naalaayira Divya Prabhandham (nay-lay-YEE-ruh tih-VEE-yuh pee-ruh-PAN-tahm), which are some of their sacred texts. Sects in south India use Tamil along with Sanskrit and believe it to have an equal status with Sanskrit (Wikipedia, n.d.). Some may practice silence as a ritual; this is called maunbrat (MOHN-brAHT) (Giri, 2006).

Hinduism communication style and language is varied due to where the Hindu person lives and what sect they are apart of. Since Hinduism is such a large culture and religion, there are many different types of people that belong to it. For example, some are born in India and some are born in the UK; this will have a huge impact on communication styles.

Hindus greet each other by placing palms together in front of them, also known as Namaskar (NOHM-es-kar), while they bow their heads. This shows respect to the belief that God exists in everyone. Children, in more traditional families, greet their parents by touching their feet. Touching in public may be offensive and inappropriate, but some things like two men shaking hands would be appropriate for some, especially those that are more “westernized”, but women would never shake hands due to the physical touching of the opposite sex (Giri, 2006).  Generally, a married couple does not display affection in public. Touching is considered a special act and can be done on a family basis. The head is considered a sacred place and where the soul rests, so touching someone’s head without permission is an insult. Also, they never touch things with the left hand as it is unclean and is used for toileting activities. The right hand is the hand to eat with and shake hands (India, 2001).

Time Consciousness


Hindus do not see time in the linear pattern that the western culture is accustomed to, consisting of a beginning, middle, and end. They believe in a cyclical pattern of time where the past, present, and future all occur concurrently (Das, n.d.). Time, or Sanskrit ‘kala’ (KAY-lah), is a manifestation of God; creation begins when God gives energy and ends when that energy is withdrawn. God also creates Kalachakra (cahl-uh-CHOK-ruh), or time-cycles which allow for the division of life and allows for aging and the illusions of birth, the process of life, and death (Magee, 1996).  Death to Hindus is not the end, but instead an access point to rebirth. These cycles are intertwined all around us and include the cycles of the planets and the stars, the cycles of nature, and the cycles of our body processes including the cyclical breaths we unconsciously take (Das, n.d.).

Hindus believe that creation occurs in cycles. A full cycle, lasting 10,000 divine years, is known as kalpa (KUHL-pah) (Das, n.d.). It has four distinct eras of time known as yugas. The Satya Yuga (SOHT-ya YOO-guh, “the Golden Age”) is believed to have lasted for 4,000 divine years. The Treta Yuga (TREE-tah YOO-guh, “the Silver Age”) lasted lasts for 3,000 divine years. The Dvpara Dwapar Yuga (duh-vuh-PAHR-uh YOO-ga, “the Bronze Age”) went for 2,000 divine years. The Kali Yuga (KAHL-ee YOO-ga, “the Iron Age), which is believed to be the era that we are in currently, lasts 1,000 divine years. This era is believed to have begun with the death of Krishna (KREE-shnuh, a Hindu deity), approximately February 18th, 3102 B.C. (Das, n.d.). Hindus believe that a proportion of truth is lost in each subsequent yuga and is instead replaced with dishonesty. Hindus believe that earth years are shorter than divine years as a kalpa (KUHL-pah) in thought to last 432,000 earth years (Das, n.d.). It is believed by hindus that at the end of this yuga the universe will be destroyed and then recreated at which point the yuga cycles would begin once more.

Relationships and Social Organization


Hindu social organization is based around a caste system. When the Aryans first moved into India, they created a caste system to help organize the society and maintain social boundaries. The caste system was originally made up of a hierarchy of four varnas (VAR-nuh). The highest varna is Brahmin (BRAH-min), which consists of the priests and religious officials. Next, is Kshatriya (keh-SHOT-ree-yuh), which are the rulers and warriors. The third varna is for the farmers, merchants, traders and craftsmen and is called Vaishya (VEE-shya). The lowest varna is called Shidra (Soo-dra) and is for the servants of upper castes and peasants. Later in Hindu history, a fifth category was created. This group is called Panchama and is designated for all those who do not fit in the other four castes. This group has also been known as the outcasts or untouchables. These outcasts were usually made to perform the dirty jobs, were not allowed to live within the regular villages and could not share public facilities, such as wells and temples, with other caste groups (Flesher, 2007).

Traditionally Hindus are born into the same caste as their parents. They cannot move to a different caste during their life, but each caste is divided into a number of sub-castes that act as a social hierarchy. These sub-castes are known as Jati (JAH-tee). The caste system has worked well and remained stable in India for over 2,000 years. Currently, discrimination based on the caste system is outlawed in India, but the practices and attitudes remain ingrained in Hindu culture and there is still social hierarchy and inequality that occur today (Flesher, 2007).

When it comes to relationships, Hindus believe that the building block of society is the extended family. Often times, up to three or four generations of family will live together in the same household. The elders in the family are usually responsible for making decisions and giving guidance to the younger members. Also, the men are in charge of providing a pooled income and the women share the domestic responsibilities, such as cooking and cleaning. The relationship dynamics are often defined though Hindu scriptures and each member of the extended family has a specific term of address. For example, the maternal grandmother is referred to as Nani (NAH-nee), while the paternal grandmother is called Dadi (DAH-dee) (Family Life, 2004). In Hindu religion, marriage is not just a relationship between the partners, but is considered a broad social and religious obligation. It is a very sacred relationship and is a time for two souls to bond together and the relationship exists across multiple lives (V, 2000).

Education and Learning


In Hinduism vidya (VIH-dyah), or education, is vital if one wants to attain the four aims of human life namely virtue, wealth, pleasure, and liberation. An illiterate person is considered equivalent to an animal because without knowledge they will not be able to rise above his or her physical self. An individual who is educated is believed to be twice born. The first time they are born physically and the second time spiritually. Although education is encouraged, knowledge is believed to be a double-edged sword. If an immoral or evil person gains knowledge, it can become a destructive force. They might misuse the power and bring misery to themselves or others. It is believed that the basic difference between a god and a demon is the way they use their knowledge. A god uses his knowledge for the welfare of the world and the demon uses his for his own selfish aims. Because of this, as part of their education, students are taught to follow the path of gods and to develop virtue under the careful direction of their teachers so that they can continue on the path of righteousness for the rest of their lives as well as contribute to the welfare of society (Jayaram, n.d.).

The Hindu scriptures recognize two types of knowledge, the lower knowledge and the higher knowledge. The lower knowledge includes knowing the rites and rituals as well as scholarly study of scriptures while the higher knowledge includes knowledge gained through personal experience and self-realization. Of the two, higher knowledge is preferred because it liberates people from the cycle of births and deaths, however no one can live by higher knowledge alone. An individual needs material knowledge in order to successfully navigate through a material world in order to comprehend the value of higher knowledge and prepare oneself to attain it. Hindu scripture encourages individuals not to ignore the mundane and the ordinary in their eagerness to pursue higher knowledge or self-realization (Jayaram, n.d.).

Food and Feeding Habits


Maintaining good health through diet and eating habits is an important aspect of the Hindu culture as remaining healthy allows full service in both spiritual and material matters. Because of this, there are restrictions and boundaries on what should be allowed in dietary concerns in order to promote the best health.

The manner in which allowed animals are killed is a consideration when making choices on what can be eaten. Any animals that are strangled, gored to death, killed with a violent blow, have been sacrificed to idols or have been partially consumed by wild animals prior to death are off limits as this is not considered “good and pure” food.  Alcohol is also prohibited and any liquid should not be consumed in one continuous drink that would drain a glass at once (Inter-Islam, 2001).

The Qur’an (CUR-an) mostly pinpoints the aspects of a healthy diet for the Hindu culture, noting the permissibility and advantage of protein, dairy, fruit, vegetables and grain. Beyond what is advised to eat, there are guidelines on how to eat in the culture (Inter-Islam, 2001). Eating should be done in moderation because while overeating is discouraged, wasting food is condemned.  The guideline is to eat to fill one third of your stomach with food, one-third with water and leave one third for air (Islamic Bulletin, 1998). One should only engage in eating when hunger is felt (not as a hobby or way to pass the time) and should be stopped before the stomach is completely full. The belief is that eating less and keeping away foods that have been identified as unclean will help to prevent sickness and disease (Inter-Islam, 2001).

There are also guidelines in how one should conduct him or herself when preparing to eat, such as washing hands before and after eating, to eat using only the right hand and to not indulge in excess. One is encouraged to eat slowly in order to properly chew and digest food. There is an emphasis on eating together with other people instead of eating alone because it is believed to bring increased blessings and benefits when dining with others. Guests are served first at meals and a host of a meal should be the first to start eating and the last to finish. As a guest, it is unacceptable to ask for anything more than water or salt as additional items may not be available. Everything received should also be appropriately recognized as coming from Allah and a prayer of blessing and thanksgiving is given before and after each meal, respectively (Islamic Bulletin, 1998).

Fasting, going without food, is also an important part of the culture and at certain times, those devout in Hinduism will fast as a show of respect to personal gods or as a part of a penance. It is a way of purifying the mind and the body and routes back to being able to focus on spiritual things or material attainment (Jayaram, 2015).

Work Habits and Practices


In the Hindu culture, work and religion are intertwined. That is to say that individuals do not leave religious practices at home when entering into the workplace. Religion tends to have a great effect in the way individuals approach the workforce and on the work they choose to do. For Hindus, doing work that has divine and spiritual significance generates greater satisfaction and commitment in continuing to do said work. Helping others is seen as a way to serve God. In a Hindu text, the Thirukurral, “are the doctrines of karma (CAR-muh) and dharma (DAR-muh), which have been interpreted in a range of meanings including ‘work’ and ‘worship’ respectively" and "therefore, they are directly relevant to the maxim ‘work is worship’” (Richardson, Sinha, & Yappar, 2013, p. 69). Each individual should strive to do their very best to attain the best outcome for they work they do and they should also be concerned with the way the work affects society and the world at large. Hindus also believe that “through interacting with others, important lessons are learned” which can “deepen understanding, improve behavior, and lead to spiritual development” (Richardson et al., 2013, p. 70).

It is important to note that the Hindu cast system is centered on the concept of varna (VAR-nuh), which is a cast system. In Hinduism it is believed that there are four distinct types of personalities, each with their own individual varna, and each varna is best suited for a specific type of work. All four varnas are seen as having equal standing in society and adequate contribution from all the varnas working together is necessary for the proper functioning of society as a whole. The Bhagavad Gita (Song of the Lord) states, “By devotion to one’s own particular duty, everyone can attain perfection (18:45)” (Richardson et al., 2013, p. 70).

Hinduism does not specifically object to acquisition of material wealth. It is however mandatory that such wealth must be obtained righteously and it must also be shared and distributed. Personal gain is not the main purpose of work. The work done should benefit all of society and therefore when it pertains to the fruits of that work, an individual should only keep what is necessary, and distribute the rest.

Healthcare: As a RN it would be important to recognize


There is a large amount of diversity within the Hindu faith in both belief and practice. As a result of the wide variations within the faith the single most important thing to establish with Hindu patients is their individual beliefs and practices. Some of the topics to discuss with Hindu patients are prayer, cleanliness, diet, and decision-making (Educational Insight Part II: A Health-Care Provider's Handbook on Hindu Patients, 2013).

Prayer- A Hindu patient may have strong beliefs about certain prayer times as well as objects and icons they may wish to have near them.

Cleanliness- Cleanliness is an important concept to some Hindu's. Patients may have a very strict belief about personal cleanliness.

Diet- Some Hindu are vegetarians and some are not. Some are very strict even to include medications made from animal products.

Decision Making- Family members may have a big impact in health care decisions. Elders within the family can have an especially strong influence on decisions regarding care (Educational Insight Part II: A Health-Care Provider's Handbook on Hindu Patients, 2013).

With Hinduism having such a wide variation in belief and practice it is important to establish each patients preferences. This communication with Hindu patients provides a great opportunity to get to know and understand your patient and build a healing relationship with them.

Medical treatments are the second most important subject to discuss with Hindu patients. While some patients may be more open to Western medicine, some may prefer a more holistic approach. Understanding the beliefs of the individual regarding medical treatments will lead to a health plan that the patient is compliant with.






  1. Atman: The Soul, the Real Self. (2004). The Heart of Hinduism. Retrieved from
  2. Bowker, J. (2000). Hinduism. The concise oxford dictionary of world religions. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from
  3. Das, S. (n.d.). The Concept of Time: The Hindu View of Time. Retrieved from
  4. Das, S. (n.d.).The Four Yugas or Epochs: The Hindu Concept of 4 Yugas. Retrieved from
  5. Das, S. (n.d.). The Hindu Calendar System. Retrieved from
  6. Educational Insight Part II: A Health-Care Provider's Handbook on Hindu Patients. (2013) Hinduism Today Magazine. Retrieved from
  7. Family Life. (2004). In The Heart of Hinduism. Retrieved from
  8. Flesher, P. (2007) Social Organization. In Exploring Religions. Retrieved from
  9. Giri, V. N. (2006). Culture and communication style, review of communication. Taylor & Francis Group, 6(1-2), 124-130. doi: 10.1080/15358590600763391
  10. Hinduism: background, basic beliefs, and sacred texts. (2002). United Religions Initiative. Retrieved from
  11. Hinduism Facts. (n.d.) Retrieved from
  12. India. (2001). Cultural Portfolios Project. Retrieved from
  13. India: Personal Space and Touching. (2014). Culture Crossing Guide. Retrieved from
  14. Inter-Islam (2001). Diet in islam. Retrieved from
  15. Islamic Bulletin (1998). Islamic diet and manners. Retrieved from
  16. Jayaram (n.d.) Hinduism and education. Retrieved from:
  17. Jayaram, V. (2015). Hinduism, food and fasting. Retrieved from
  18. Magee, M. (1996). Time and Kalachakra. Retrieved from
  19. Nolan, R. T. (n.d.). Hinduism. In Philosophy and Religion. Retrieved from
  20. Patient Care Guide: Diversity Toolkit. (2012). The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Retrieved from
  21. Richardson, C., Sinha, L., & Yappar, S. (2013). Work ethics form the Islamic and HIndu traditions: in quest of common ground. Journal of Management, Spirituality, & Religion, 11(1), 65-90. doi: 10.1080/14766086.2013.801025
  22. Subramuniyaswami, S. (2002) How to become a Hindu: a guide for seekers and born Hindus. Retrieved from: (Accessed: 9 September 2015).
  23. The Self in Hinduism. (2012). Bliss of Hinduism. Retrieved from
  24. V, J. (2000). The Hindu Marriage, Past and Present. In Retrieved from
  25. Values and Authority. (2004). In The Heart of Hinduism. Retrieved from
  26. Wikipedia. (n.d.) Sacred language. Retrieved from
  27. Wikipedia. (n.d.) Sanskrit. Retrieved from