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Abortion- the purposeful cessation of a developing fetus in the womb

Absolute Poverty- the level of poverty where individuals and families cannot sustain food, shelter, warmth, and safety needs

Achieved Status- attained through one's choices and efforts (college student, movie star, teacher, or athlete)

Activity theory- claims that the elderly benefit from high levels of activities, especially meaningful activities that help to replace lost life roles after retirement

Acute Stressors- typically unexpected, sudden, and demand tremendous resources to cope with them

Adoption- the formal process of making a child not born in a family, legally part of the family, having the same rights as a birth child is afforded

Adult socialization- occurs as we assume adult roles such as wife/husband/employee/etc

Affect- is one's emotion or current feeling and is judged by a person's non-verbal messages

Agapé love- is the love that is selfless, other-focused, and seeks to serve others rather than receive from others

Ageism- the prejudice and discrimination against a person based on his/her chronological age

Agents- people who use their agency to make choices based on their varied motivations

Aggregate- a number of people in the same place at the same time

Alimony- financial support to an ex-spouse

Altruism- a selfless type of love that serves others while not serving the one who is altruistic. True altruism is hard to find according to some

Annulment- a legal decree that the marriage is void-as though the marriage never happened

Anger-Excitation Rapist- is the least common type, yet the most evil; he will torture, kidnap, and even kill his victim out of pleasure-seeking at the cost of another's pain; he is sadistic and predatory; and he uses his intelligence to plot and prey upon unsuspecting victims.

Anger-Retaliatory Rapist- has plenty of self-confidence (perhaps to the point of too much); he tends to demean, degrade, humiliate, and punish his victim for things she did not do (for example his bad day at work might be taken out on her); and he tends to be brutal, blitzing his victims so that they offer little resistance. This rapist is making the victim pay for things gone badly in his own life.

Ascribed Status- present at birth(race, sex, or class)

Assistant Homemaker- a husband who looks to his wife for direction and for instruction on how to “help” her out in her homemaking role

Assistant Parent grandparent- is the one who takes the grandchildren to school functions, practices, and doctors appointments or waits for their grandchildren to come to their house after school and before the parents return home from work

Attachment- an emotional and social bind that forms between one person and another

Authority- the institutionalized legitimate power


Baby Boom Generation- the millions of children born from 1946-1964 (there are about 78 million of them alive today)

Bankruptcy- a federally authorized procedure that allows families (businesses too) to be relieved from liability from its debts and to arrange partial repayments through court ordered relief strategies. (Chapter 7 is the quickest and easiest for business and individuals and Chapter 13 has a built-in repayment plan)

Behaviorism- a theory of learning that simply states that children will repeat behaviors that they perceive to bring a desired reward while ceasing behaviors that they perceive bring punishments

Being Lover- meets your aesthetic, intellectual and full actualization or human capacity needs while you reciprocally meet his or hers in a similar way

Bereavement- the circumstances and conditions that accompany grief

Bid- an effort and repair or reinforcing the spousal relationship that is extended in good will from one spouse to another

Black widow/widower mode- there is calculated and precise deception designed to lure the other into a relationship for ulterior motives

Blended Family- the family created by remarriage including step siblings and parents

Blood metaphor of an argument- Some arguments originate from a disease level in one of the partner's personalities. I call these the Leukemia's of arguments. Then there are the day-to-day arguments that are very common during the first 3 years. I call these the blood cell arguments because we make and lose millions of blood cells over the course of a year. Practice is important especially if the couple has massive bleeding arguments. These can threaten the very life of the relationship if unchecked. These occur when the very core values, beliefs, needs, and wants of a spouse are at stake.

Boundaries- a concept used in human relationships and family systems which are basically defined as distinct: emotional, psychological, or physical separateness between individuals, roles, and subsystems in the family

Bourgeoisie- the wealthy elite (royalty, political, and corporate leaders) have the most power. Bourgeoisie are the “Goliaths” in society who often bully their wishes into outcomes

Breadwinner- a parent or spouse who earns wages outside of the home and uses them to support the family


Caesarian sections (C-sections)- the surgical removal of the fetus form the mother through her abdomen

CASA- court appointed an advocate for a child it is called a Court Ordered Special Advocate

Catch and release mode- one partner lures the other in by pretending to experience all the romance and trappings of falling in love when in reality he or she is tricking the other person

Category- a number of people who share common characteristics

Causation- means that a change in one variable leads to or cause a change in another variable, or XYZ chewing gum causes less Herpes outbreaks

Child custody or child guardianship- the legal right an adult (most often a parent) has to act in behalf of a minor (less than 18 year old) child. During marriage, either parent can act in the child's behalf

Child support- a legal agreement on how much money a parent must pay for the care of a child after divorce

Closed adoption- no information is shared between parents and confidentiality is enforced

Closed Survey Questions- questions designed to get respondents to choose from a list of responses you provide to them

Co-adulthood- the status children attain when they are independent, capable of fulfilling responsibilities and roles, and confident in their own identities as emerging adults

Cognitive model of parenting- an approach that applies reason and clarification to the child in a persuasive effort to get them to understand why they should behave a certain way

Cohabitation- the heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual moving in together of two partners without going through the formalities of legal marriage

Co-homemaker husband- never “helps” his wife with homemaking task, but assumes that she and he equally share their breadwinning and homemaking responsibilities

Cohort- a group of people who have some demographic characteristic, typically associated with their birth year or group of birth years

Collaborative divorces- use attorneys for all the behind the scenes work and then file the results with the State courts. For mediated divorce, mediators who may or may not be attorneys, work to find a mutually agreeable solution for both spouses

Committed love- a love that is loyal and devoted

Common-law marriages- cohabiting relationships that have no state license and typically have no marriage ceremony

Community Property (also called marital property)- property acquired and obtained during the marriage, which neither person owned before the marriage

Components of a good survey- include clear purpose for taking the survey, clear understanding of desired outcomes of survey, good research supporting development and design of survey, appropriate sampling technique when collecting survey, reliability and validity in survey and its question and design, and clear and accurate presentation of survey findings that are appropriate for the type of survey used

Confidence scams- tend to exploit our greed, vanity, and ignorance as they promise quick profits, low risks, and certain outcomes

Conflict avoidant people- tend to work extra hard to avoid conflict with others and often sacrifice the needed attention to issues that is required for a relationship to last

Conflict theory claims that society is in a state of perpetual conflict and competition for limited resources

Consanguineous relationships- the relationships children born to the same parents have with their parents and siblings; these are often referred to as blood-ties or genetic ties in modern-day terms

Content Analysis- the counting and tabulating of words, sentences, and themes from written, audio, video, and other forms of communication

Continuity theory- claims that, in their later years, older adults maintain patterns that they had in their younger years

Convenience Sample- a portion of the population that is NOT scientifically drawn, but is collected because they are easy to access

Couple- a pair of people who identify themselves in terms of belonging together, trusting one another, and having a unique relationship, separate from all others

Credentialed Societies- societies which use diplomas or degrees to determine who is eligible for a job: Certificate is 1-year past high school, Associates is 2-years degree, Bachelor's is 4-year degree, Masters is another 2-year degree past Bachelor's, Doctorate is another 4-6 years past Bachelor's degree

Criteria or realistic love- the love feelings you have when your list of a potential mate's personal traits is met in the other person

Cross-Sectional Survey- a survey given once to a group of people

Crude birth rate- the number of births per year in a given population per 1,000 people

Culture- the shared values, norms, symbols, language, objects, and way of life that is passed on from one generation to the next Culture is what we learn from our parents, family, friends, peers, and schools

Cultural Relativism is the tendency to look for the cultural context in which differences in cultures occur


Deceptive love- formed when one or both partners either consciously or unconsciously mislead the other in an effort to dishonestly establish trust and intimacy

Deficiency Lover- a lover who provides the basic level of needs for their partner while having their needs reciprocally met in a similar way

Delayed gratification- the individual perspective that has patience, the ability to invest time and efforts now in hopes of a payoff down the road

Demographic Formula- (Births-Deaths) +/- ((In-Migration)-(Out Migration))=Population Change

Demographic Questions- questions which provide the basic categorical information about your respondent including: age, sex, race, education level, marital status, birth date, birth place, income, etc.

Demography- the scientific study of population growth and change

Dependent Variables- survey variables that change in response to the influence of independent variables

Dilation- the opening of the cervix which stretches the membranes in such a way that effacement or the thinning of the cervix occurs

Direct correlation- occurs when variables change in the same direction

Directional arguments- have a goal or a purpose and usually approach the issue that led to the argument in the first place

Disengaged- the family is too chaotic (very loose rules and weak patterns of associating, or there is little family leadership) or rigid (very strict and structured patterns of associating, or there is too strict leadership)

Disengagement theory- claims that as elderly people realize the inevitability of death and begin to systematically disengage from their previous youthful roles, society simultaneously prepares the pre-elderly and elderly to disengage from their roles

Disneyland Grandparent- is one who entertains and distracts their grandchildren from the mundane aspects of their daily lives at home

Distant Relative grandparents- visit at times and live at a geographic or emotional distance from their grandchildren

Divorce- the legal dissolution of a previously granted marriage

Dominating Parents- over-control and coerce their children

DTR- a moment where the two individuals Define The Relationship openly to determine if both want to include each other in a specific goal-directed destination (e.g, exclusive dating) or if it's better for everyone if the relationship ends

Dyads which are a group of two people and Triads which are a group of three people

Dysfunctions- breakdowns or disruptions in society and its parts, which threaten social stability


Egalitarian families- families with power and authority more fairly distributed between husband and wife

Elder Abuse- the mistreatment of, violence against, and otherwise harmful manipulation of elderly persons

Elderly families- have more freedoms from childrearing than the younger families have

Emancipation of a minor- the legal process of a child being freed from control of his or her parents which simultaneously frees the parents of obligations to the child

Endogamy rules- suggest the need for a marriage of people of similar categorical backgrounds and walks of life

Enmeshment- occurs when parents and children weave their identities so tightly around one another that it renders them both incapable functioning independently

Entitlement- a feeling of wanting something for nothing, of being justified in having one's wants met, and/or a feeling of being excluded from the same rules that bind most of the member of society

Entropy- roughly defined as the principle that matter tends to decay and reduce, toward its simplest parts

Equilibrium- the state of balance maintained by social processes that help society adjust and compensate for forces that might tilt it onto a path of destruction

Equity- a sense that the interactions are fair to us and fair to others involved by the consequences of our choices

Eros- the love of sensuality, sex, taste, touch, sight, hearing, and smell

Ethnocentrism- the tendency to judge others based on our own experiences

Excitement Phase- when blood flow to pelvis bringing more lymphatic fluid and plasma to the region

Exclusive dating- is the mutual agreement to exclude others from dating either individual in the relationship

Exogamy- the tendency to pair off with or marry someone outside of your own familial groups

Exogamy rules- mandate that adults marry outside of one's family of origin and/or close range of cousins

Experiments- studies in which researchers can observe phenomena while holding other variables constant or controlling them

Expressive Tasks- pertain to the creation and maintenance of a set of positive, supportive, emotional relationships within the family unit

Extended Family- one's relatives beyond nuclear and blended family levels (e.g., cousins, aunts & uncles, grand and great grandparents)

Extramarital affairs- intimate relationships with a person other than one's spouse that may be sexual or nonsexual

Extreme value- the especially low or high number in the series


False Social Conscious- an ignorance of social facts and the larger social picture

Family Abuse- the physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or harm of another family member

Family adaptability- the degree to which a family can adjust to changes in family member's roles and relationships

Family cohesion- the degree to which family members have emotionally bonded to one another

Family elder abuse- the maltreatment of older family members in emotional, sexual, physical, financial, neglect, and other ways, especially where trust was expected and violated

Family functions- the tasks and goals that support and sustain the family

Family Gerontology- the subfield that focuses on the family experiences of elderly persons

Family history- the process of documenting and cataloging one's own ancestral heritage

Family system entropy- the process of decay within a nuclear family system that is facilitated by the diverse roles and demands placed on family members as they travel their life courses together

Family Systems Theory- claims that the family is understood best by conceptualizing it as a complex, dynamic, and changing collection of parts, subsystems and family members

Female Genital Mutilation- the traditional cutting, circumcision, and removal of most or all external genitalia of women for the end result of closing off some or part of the vagina until such time

that the woman is married and cut open

Field Experiments are studies- utilize experimental design but are initiated in everyday settings and non-laboratory environments

Filial piety- the value, respect, and reverence of one's elderly which is often accompanied by care giving and support of the elderly

Filtering- the process of identifying those we interact with as either being in or out of our pool of people we might consider to be a date or mate

Fixed expenses- are monthly expenses that are set and do not depend upon your consumer choices

Forgiveness- an act of grace wherein the offender is held harmless by the offended spouse in matters of the offense

Friendship love- includes intimacy and trust among close friends

Functionalist theory- claims that society is in a state of balance and kept that way through the function of society's component parts


Gender-the cultural definition of what it means to be a man or a woman

Gender Roles- socialized expectations of what is normal, desirable, acceptable, and conforming for males and females in specific jobs or positions in groups and organizations over the life course

Gender Socialization- the shaping of individual behavior and perceptions in such a way that the individual conforms to the socially prescribed expectations for males and females

General Fertility Rate- the numbers of live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44

Generalizability- that the results from the sample can be assumed to apply to the population with confidence

Gerontology- the scientific study of the processes and phenomena of aging and growing old

Grand Theory-a theory which deals with the universal aspects of social processes or problems and is based on abstract ideas and concepts rather than on case specific evidence

Grief- the feeling of loss we experience after a death, disappointment, or tragedy

Group- a set of two or more people who share common identity, interact regularly, and have shared expectations (roles), and function in their mutually agreed upon roles

Guardian ad litem- an adult (lawyer) appointed to represent the interest of the child during divorces, abuse, neglect, or other hardships where the child's interests need to be protected independent of the parents

Guilt- a feeling of remorse for doing something wrong or not having done what one should have done


Hedonism- the pursuit of pleasure as the main goal of one's life with pleasure being the core value of daily life

Heterogamy- the dating or pairing of individuals with differences in traits

Heterosexuality- the sexual attraction between a male and a female. Homosexuality is a sexual attraction between a male to another male or a female to another female. Bisexuality is a sexual attraction to both male and female sexual partners

High resources families- meet family members needs better than others

Hijab- is the Arabic word that means to cover or veil has become more common

Home equity- the value in the home that is higher than the amount still owned on the home loan

Home invasion- the individual inserts themselves into the your intimate life uninvited

Home Schooling- the process of educating children in the home using family, friends, and consultants as educators

Homemaker- typically a women who occupies her life with mothering, housekeeping, and being a wife while depending heavily on the breadwinner

Homogamy- the tendency for dates, mates, and spouses to pair off with someone of similar attraction, background, interests, and needs

Hostile Work Environment- the most common form of sexual harassment where an employee fears going to work because of the sexually offensive, intimidation, and bullying environment that exist there


Independent Variables- survey variables that when manipulated will stimulate a change upon the dependent variables

Individuation- the process by which children become their own persons and learn to identify themselves as distinct individuals with unique tastes, desires, talents, and values

Individuation- the process of separating oneself, one's identity, and one's dependence on others, especially on parents

Industrial Revolution- a technological development of knowledge and manufacturing that began in the late 1600s and continued until the early 1900s

Infatuation- a temporary state of love where the other person is overly idealized and seen in narrow and extremely positive terms

In-laws- people you become related to by virtue of marrying into your fiancé's family network

Instrumental Tasks- goal directed activities which link the family to the surrounding society, geared toward obtaining resources

Intimacy- the social, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and physical trust that is mutually shared between family members, even with the understanding of personal faults of the individual

Intimate terrorism- where the individual is violent and controlling, the partner is not Violent resistance, the individual is violent but not controlling; the partner is the violent and controlling one In situational couple violence, although the individual is violent, neither the individual nor the partner is violent and controlling In mutual violent control, the individual and the partner are violent and controlling

Inverse correlation- variables change in opposite directions


Joint custody- an award of custody to both parents wherein the child is considered to live physically at both addresses


Kübler-Ross stages of grief- include denial= “All is fine or it didn't happen”; anger= “why me? Or I hate God for this;” bargaining=I be a better person if you (God) will just let him live;” depression= “all is lost or why try?;” and acceptance=”we'll be okay or we can get through this together


Larger Social Issues- lie beyond one's personal control and the range of one's inner life. These pertain to society's organization and processes

Latent functions- the less apparent, unintended, and often unrecognized functions in social institutions and processes

Legal Guardian- the steward or person authorized to act in behalf of the child in all manners

Legal wills- documents prepared by individuals and filed with the state in which the person lives and which dictates how inheritances and assets are to be distributed after the death of the individual

Levinger's Alternative Attractions- lures or something appealing that a now-married spouse might find rewarding if they go ahead and divorce

Levinger's Attractions- the magnets or rewards that stem from being married

Levinger's Barriers- the costs or punishments that might be incurred if a married person chose to divorce

Life Chances- access to basic opportunities and resources in the marketplace

Life course- an ideal sequence of events and positions the average person is expected to experience as he/she matures and moves through life

Life expectancy- the average numbers of years a person born today may expect to live

Likert Scale Questions- the most common response scale used in surveys and questionnaires. These questions are statements which respondents are asked to agree or disagree with by choosing from the scale below for their answer: Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neither agree nor disagree 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

Living trust- a legal action that puts a person's assets into an Internal Revenue Service-classification that shelters assets from taxes and protects the person's allocation of assets from the public eye

Longitudinal Survey- a survey given to the same people more than once and typically over a set of years or decades

Love- the physical, emotional, sexual, intellectual, or social affection one person holds for another

Low resource families- meet most family member's needs poorly

Ludis- an immature love that is more of a tease than a legitimate loving relationship


Macro Theories- theories that best fit the study of massive numbers of people (typically Conflict and Functional theories)

Male Bashing is the verbal abuse and use of pejorative and derogatory language about men

Male Supremacy Model- where males erroneously believe that men are superior in all aspects of life and that should excel in everything they do

Manifest functions- the apparent and intended functions of institutions in society

Marital Entropy- the principle that if a marriage does not receive preventative maintenance and upgrades it will move towards decay and break down

Marriage Gradient- the tendency for women to marry a man slightly older and slightly taller while men tend to marry a woman slightly more attractive

Marriage- a legal union between a man and a woman as recognized by most of the United States

Marriage Squeeze- a demographic imbalance in the number of males to females among those considered to be of marrying ages

Master Status- a status which stands out above our other statuses and which distracts others from really seeing who we are

Maternal Death- the death of a pregnant woman resulting from pregnancy, delivery, or recovery complications

Matriarchal families- females have more power and authority than males and rights and inheritances pass from mothers to daughter and sons

Matrilineal inheritances- passed from mothers to daughters to granddaughters

Mean- the arithmetic score of all the numbers divided by the total number of participants

Median- the exact mid-point value in the ranked list of scores

Men's Movement-a broad effort across societies and the world to improve the quality of life and family-related rights of men

Mentoring Parents- tend to negotiate and share control with their children

Micro Theories- theories that best fit the study of small groups and their members (typically Symbolic Interactionism or Social Exchange theories)

Middle families- tend to be in their 30-50s, their children are teens or young adults, they are in mid-career and financially established with a home and cars

Middle-Range Theory- a theory derived from specific scientific findings and focuses on the interrelation of two or more concepts applied to a very specific social process or problem

Miscarriage (also called spontaneous abortion)- the involuntary ending of the pregnancy by the mother's body, typically considered a default process when or if something is abnormal about the fetus or pregnancy

Misogyny- the physical or verbal abuse and mistreatment of women

Mode- the number that occurs the most in a list of numbers (e.g., in the sample 1,4,1,1,6,5,4, number 1 occurs the most, so it is the mode)

Modernization Theory- claims that industrialization and modernization have lowered the power and influence which the elderly once had which has lead to much exclusion of elderly from community roles

Monogamy- the marriage form permitting only one spouse at a time

Mood- one's state of emotional being and is typically detected by the words and patterns of speaking a person uses


Natural Increase- (Births-Deaths) which is all births minus all the deaths in a given population over a given time period

Near Poverty- when one earns up to 25% above the poverty line. We would say that a person near poverty has more income than someone in poverty, but not more than 25 percent more

Net Migration- ((In-Migration)-(Out Migration)) which is all the in-migration minus all the out-migration in a given population over a given time period

No-fault divorce- couples can dissolve a happy marriage, a functional marriage, even a convenient and congenial marriage with no regard to who is at fault for the marriage ending in divorce

Nominal Data- data that have no standard numerical values

Non-directional- the underlying issue is not being dealt with in the argument itself

Normative stressors- expected life events and processes that bring stress by virtue of their nature

Now-time gratification (also called present time gratification)- is the individual perspective that seeks immediate satisfaction of their needs, wants, and desires

Nuclear Family- a family group consisting of mother & father and their children


Objectivity- the ability to study and observe without distortion or bias, especially personal bias

Obsessive love- an unhealthy love type where conflict and dramatic extremes in the relationship are both the goal and the theme of the couple's love

Oil idea- claims that we live in a dangerous world that requires women to be vigilant in defending and protecting themselves

Open adoption- when information about the parents is shared between birth parents and adopting parents

Open Survey Questions-questions designed to get respondents to answer in their own words

Ordinal Data- rank ordered data that has standard numerical values

Orgasm- the sexual climax that accompanies sexual intercourse and includes muscle tightening in the genital area, electrical sensations radiating from the genitals, and a surge of a variety of pleasure-producing hormones throughout the body


Parental rights- the legal rights and obligations afforded to the birth or adopted parents

Parental Substitute grandparent- the one who lives in the home with the grandchild (or the grandchild lives in their grandparent's home)

Parenting- the process of nurturing, caring for, socializing, and preparing one's children for their Socialization is the process by which people learn characteristics of their group's norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors

Parenting paradigms- conceptual patterns or ideas that provide the basis of parents' strategy in the parenting role

Parochial schools- typically controlled and funded through either private or religious organizations

Participant Observation- a research method where the researcher participates in activities and more or less assumes membership in the group she studies

Patriarchal families- males have more power and authority than females and where rights and inheritances typically pass from fathers to sons

Patrilineal inheritances- are passed from grandfathers to fathers to sons

Personal Troubles- private problems experienced within the character of the individual and the range of their immediate relation to others

Philia love- often referred to as brotherly love, or love without passion

Plateau Stage- begins when more hormones are released, moisture increases, heart rate increases, intensity of sensory perception increases (touch, smell, sight, hearing, and taste)

Platonic Love Plato's definition of love, included a nonsexual relationship that could include deep levels of trust and intimacy and could be found among many types of relationships

Polls-typically surveys which collect opinions (such as who one might vote for in an election, how one feels about the outcome of a controversial issue, or how one evaluates a public official or organization

Polyandry- a marriage form permitting more than one husband at the same time

Polygamy- a marriage form permitting more than one spouse at the same time

Polygyny- marriage form permitting more than one wife at the same time and is the most common form of polygamy in the world's history

Population- the entre membership of a country, organization, group, or category of people to be surveyed (e.g., US population=305,000,000)

Positivism- the scientific-based sociological research that uses scientific tools such as survey, sampling, objective measurement, and cultural and historical analysis to study and understand society

Poverty Line- the official measure of those whose incomes are less than three times a lower cost food budget

Power Exchange- form of sexual harassment occurs when there is a difference in status such that a supervisor, manager, or boss is involved with a subordinate employee. This type is often called “quid pro quo” or something exchanged for sexual favors

Power- the ability to get what one wants even in the presence of opposition

Power-Assertive Rapist- has a very low self-concept; he attempts to reassure himself on his manhood; and uses very little force or violence. His deep-seated shame drives him to offend often and not feel long-term satisfaction from the assaults.

Power-Reassurance Rapist- the most common type of rapist; he uses little to no violence; has a very weak sense of self and of lacking “manliness;” and rape is his outlet of power, domination, anger, and control. This rapist is inadequate in general and rapes in a futile attempt to feel adequate.

Pragma love- the love of details and qualities in the other person

Prenuptial agreements- contractual pre-arrangements agreed to prior to the marriage which identify the distribution of wealth if a divorce or death transpires

Primary Groups- tend to be smaller, less formal, and more intimate (Families and friends)

Primary socialization- includes all the ways the newborn is molded into a social being capable of interacting in and meeting the expectations of society

Principle of Least Interest- simply states that the partner who is least interested has the most power

Profane-that which is part of the regular everyday life experience

Proletariat- the common working class, lower class, and poor members of society

Propenquity- the geographic closeness experienced by potential dates and mates

Psuedohermaphrosim (false or near hermaphrodism)- a rare condition wherein some of both reproductive organs for males or females are present in one person's body, but neither male nor female organs are completely present and/or fully functioning

Public schools- funded by the state (through taxation) and regulated by Boards of Education


Random Sample- a portion of the population that is drawn in such a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the survey

Rape ≠ Sex

Relative deprivation- the perception of advantage or disadvantage that comes from our own personal experiences in comparison to others

Reliable Survey Questions- survey questions that are relatively free from bias errors which might taint the findings. In other words, reliable survey questions are consistent

Religion- a unified system of beliefs, rituals, and practices that typically involve a broader community of believers who share common definitions of the sacred and the profane

Religiosity- the measurable importance of religion to a person's life

Remarriage- the legal union of a man and woman that follows the dissolution of a previous marriage for one or both spouses

Remarriage- the marriage of a couple where one or both had been married to another person before

Representative Sample- a sample drawn from the population, the composition of which very much resembles that of the population

Rescue Parents- constantly interfering with their children's activities

Response Rate- the percentage of the original sample who successfully completed the survey

Rite of passage- an event that signifies the transition of a person from one stage in life to another

Role Conflict- the conflict and burdens one feels because the expectations of one role compete with the expectations of another role

Role Strain- the burden one feels within any given role

Roles- typically include exclusive dating, cohabitation, engagement, or marriage

Romantic love- based on continual courtship and physical intimacy


Sacred- the supernatural, divine, awe inspiring, and spiritually significant aspects of our existence

Same-sex Marriage- is the legal union of two people of the same sex

Sample Size- the number of respondents who are designated to take the survey

Script- a blueprint for what we “should do” in our roles

Secondary Analysis- the analysis of data that have already been gathered by others

Secondary Groups- tend to be larger, more formal, and much less personal (you and your doctor, mechanic, or accountant)

Secondary socialization- occurs in later childhood and adolescence when children go to school and come under the influence of non-family members

Secured loans- loans that have some form of collateral so that the risk to the lender is minimized

Self-disclosure- the process or revealing the true nature of oneself to another person

Self-worth- the feeling of acceptance a child has about his or her own strengths and weaknesses, desirable and undesirable traits, and value as an individual

Senescence- the social, emotional, biological, intellectual, and spiritual processes associated with aging

Separate Property- was owned before the marriage, inherited during the marriage, or acquired after the separation

Serial cohabiters- persons who have a series of cohabiting relationships over the course of time

Serial Monogamy or Serial Polygamy- the process of establishing intimate marriage or cohabiting relationships that eventually dissolve and are followed by another intimate marriage or cohabiting relationship, that eventually dissolve, etc in a series

Sex- one's biological classification as male or female and is set into motion at the moment the sperm fertilizes the egg

Sexual assault- can be defined as any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient of the unwanted sexual activity.

Sexual behaviors- our actual sexual actions and interactions

Sexual congruency- that orientation, desires, and behaviors correspond directly with each other

Sexual desires- the attractions we have for sexual partners and experience that exist independent of our behaviors

Sexual Harrassment- the use of intimidation, bullying, force or threat of force to coerce a fellow employee into unwanted or unwelcomed sexual interactions

Sexual incongruency- means that orientation, desires, and behaviors DO NOT correspond directly with each other

Sexual Objectification of Women- is where men learn to view women as objects of sexual consumption rather than as a whole person

Sexual or Passionate lovers- focused on the intensely sensual pleasures that are found with the senses of taste, smell, touch, feel, hear, and sight

Sexual Orientation- the sexual preference one has for their partner: male, female, both, or neither

Sexual reactivity- a propensity among children to act in sexual ways as a result of having been sexually abused

Sexual Response Cycle- a model that explains how most people experience three phases when they engage in sexual intercourse: excitement, plateau, and then orgasm

Sexual Scripts- blueprints and guidelines for what we define as our role in sexual expression, sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, sexual desires, and the sexual component of our self-definition

Sexual socialization- the process by which we learn how, when, where, with whom, why, and with which motivations we are sexual beings

Shame is a feeling of being worthless, bad, broken, or flawed at an irreparable level

Shop Talk- is safe conversation about superficial things (places, time, weather, etc)

Significant others- those other people whose evaluation of the individual is important and regularly considered during interactions

Similarity Principle- states that the more similar two people perceive themselves to be, the more likely their relationship will continue and succeed

Social Construction of Reality- what people define as real because of their background assumptions and life experiences with others

Social Exchange- claims that society is composed of ever present interactions among individuals who attempt to maximize rewards while minimizing costs (REWARDS-COSTS)=OUTCOMES or(“What I get out of it”-“What I lose by doing it”)=”My decision”

Social Exchange Theory- claims that society is composed of ever present interactions among individuals who attempt to maximize rewards while minimizing costs

Social Facts- social processes rooted in society rather than in the individual

Social gerontology- the sociological subfield of gerontology which focuses on the nonphysical and social aspects of aging

Socio-Economic Status (SES)- a combination of one's education, occupation, and income and has been found to be highly correlated with a better quality of life for those in society who have higher SES scores

Sole custody- an award agreed to and signed by a judge where one parent is considered the custodial parent and where visitation with the non-custodial parent is scheduled over the course of the year

Spouse-only issues- which are the decisions, advice, and discussion that are held exclusively between partners and intentionally NOT between other family and friends

Spurious correlation which is an apparent relationship between two variables which indicates their relationship to a third variable and not to each other

Stalking- when someone harasses or threatens another repeatedly; even knowing their pursuit is unwanted

Status is a socially defined position

Stepfamilies- formed when children from another marriage or relationship are brought into a family through a new marriage

Sternberg's Consummate Love- a love type that had equal measures of passion, intimacy, and commitment that is satisfactory to both lovers

Still birth- the death of an unborn baby in the womb that must still be delivered

Stimulus- the trait (usually physical) that draws your attention to the person

Storgé love- the love of your best friend in a normal casual context of life

Stratified Random Sample- a portion of the population that is drawn in such a way that every member of the population and important sub-categories of the population have an equal chance of being selected for the survey, yielding a sample that is demographically similar to population

Stressor pile up- occurs when stressful events accumulate in such a manner that resolution has not happened with existing stressors before new stressors are added

Surveys are research instruments designed to obtain information from individuals who belong to a larger group, organization, or society

Symbolic Interaction- claims that society is composed of ever present interactions among individuals who share symbols and their meanings


Thanatology- the scientific study of death and dying

Thomas Theorem- often called the “Definition of the situation” which is basically if people perceive or define something as being real then it is real in its consequences

Total Fertility Rate- the average number of births per woman in a given population

Tourist Husband- a visitor to the homemaking role who contributes the occasional assistance to his wife as a courtesy-much like a tourist might offer occasional assistance to their host

Tracking the offenses of a spouse- means that you document and remember the offensive behavior and others like it and regularly bring past “forgiven” issues back up as though they just occurred and were never dealt with

True Hermaphrodism- an extremely rare condition wherein both reproductive organs of both males and females are in one person's body and functioning to some degree or another (this includes, penis, testicles, prostate gland, vagina, uterus, and ovaries)


Unconditional love- the sincere love that does not vary regardless of the actions of the person who is loved

Unrequited love- the result of one person deeply wanting and intimate relationship with another who simply is not interested and does not reciprocate

Unsecured loans- have no collateral associated with them and typically are given based on individual credit scores

Unwed Mothers- mothers who are not legally married at the time of the child's birth

Upon marriage- affinal relationships form through the marriage of a bride and groom and socially bind the extended family members into in-law type relationships


Valid Survey Questions- questions that are accurate and measure what they claim they'll measure

Values- compared for compatibility and evaluation of “maximization of Rewards while minimization of costs is calculated

Variable expense- expenses that can change from month-to-month based on needs and wants and which are not fixed expenses

Variables- survey questions that measure some characteristic of the population


Water idea- it is never the victim's fault

Widow- the woman who loses her husband to death

Widower- the man who loses his wife to death

Widowhood- occurs when one's spouse dies


Young families- tend to be between ages 20- 30s; they have young children; are establishing their careers and buying assets; and have less than a decade together